Art history papers must be regularly cited. This not only helps you avoid being accused of plagiarism, but also strengthens your argument. When you cite authoritative sources, their credibility increases your own. Citations also help display for your professor how much research you did, and the more, the merrier, here. I have often had students flunk for not having enough (or any) citations, but I have never flunked a student for having too many citations!

There are many citation formats, but in art history, footnotes in the Chicago style are the standard. This is not hard, but you do need to pay attention to the details to get it right. There is little excuse for not having correct citations, so pay attention carefully to the Art History Rules for Citations, and copy these models! For each, I give an example citation and then provide [in brackets] an explanation of each element.


Rules for Footnotes

Asa Simon Mittman, Maps and Monsters in Medieval England (New York: Routledge, 2006), 124.

[Firstname Middlename Lastname, Book Title (Publisher Location: Publisher Name, PublicationDate), pagenumber.]

Article in a Journal/Magazine:
Dan Terkla, “Hugh of St. Victor (1096-1141) and Anglo-French Cartography,” Imago Mundi: The International Journal for the History of Cartography 65:2 (2013): 161-179, 169.

[Firstname Middlename Lastname, “Article Title,” Journal Title VolumeNumber:IssueNumber (PublicationDate): Page-Range, pagenumber.]

Article in a Book (Collection of Essays):
Greta Austin, “Marvelous Peoples or Marvelous Races? Race and Anglo-Saxon Wonders of the East,” in Marvels, Monsters, and Miracles: Studies in the Medieval and Early Modern Imaginations, ed. Timothy S. Jones and David A. Sprunger (Kalamazoo: Western Michigan University, 2002): 1-31, 27.

[Firstname Middlename Lastname, “Chapter Title,” in Book Title, ed. EditorFirstName EditorMiddleName EditorLastname (Publisher Location: Publisher Name, PublicationDate): Page-Range, pagenumber.]

Web Page:
Michele Brown, “Catalogue Entry for The Hexateuch,” The British Library Web Catalogue (2001) < > (accessed January 12, 2003).

[Firstname Middlename Lastname, “Webpage Title,” Website Name (PublicationDate) <URL> (accessed DateYouAccessedTheSite).]

Dracula, dir. Tod Browning (Hollywood: Universal Pictures, 1931)

[Title of Work, dir. Firstname Lastname (City: Studio/Distributor, Original release year).]

Rules for Bibliography/Works Cited Entries

Mittman, Asa Simon. Maps and Monsters in Medieval England. New York: Routledge, 2006.

[Lastname, Firstname Middlename. Book Title. Publisher Location: Publisher Name, PublicationDate.]

Terkla, Dan. “Hugh of St. Victor (1096-1141) and Anglo-French Cartography.” Imago Mundi: The International Journal for the History of Cartography 65:1 (2013): 161-179.

[Lastname, Firstname Middlename. “Article Title.” Journal Title VolumeNumber:IssueNumber (PublicationDate): Page-Range.]

Article in a Collection of Essays:
Austin, Greta. “Marvelous Peoples or Marvelous Races? Race and Anglo-Saxon Wonders of the East.” In Marvels, Monsters, and Miracles: Studies in the Medieval and Early Modern Imaginations. Edited by Timothy S. Jones and David A. Sprunger. Kalamazoo: Western Michigan University, 2002: 1-31.

[Lastname, Firstname Middlename. “Chapter Title.” In Book Title. Edited by EditorFirstName EditorMiddleName EditorLastname. Publisher Location: Publisher Name, PublicationDate: Page-Range.]

Web Page:
Brown, Michele, “Catalogue Entry for The Hexateuch.” The British Library Web Catalogue (2001) < >. Accessed January 12, 2003.

[Lastname, Firstname Middlename. “Webpage Title.” Website Name (PublicationDate) <URL>. Accessed DateYouAccessedTheSite.]

Browning, Tod, director. Dracula. Hollywood: Universal Pictures, 1931.

[Lastname, Firstname. Title of Work. City: Studio/Distributor, Original release year.]


These are based on the Chicago Manual of Style. See here for their helpful Quick Citation Guide, which has many more formats (like books with two authors, articles in collections of essays, etc.). Be sure to note the differences in note format and bibliography/works cited format!

The two most important aspects of citation are consistency and traceability. Can your reader easily find the text you are citing? Have you given all the necessary information?

The Citation Machine can generate these formats for you, but watch out — it defaults to  bibliography citation formats. You can then select footnote citation format. Still, use this site with caution.

***See here for an example of how citations they should look on your page.***

Click Insert>Footnote (or Reference, depending on version)>Ok.
This will automatically place the superscript number in your text, and the corresponding reference at the base of the page. For lots more detail, see here.